Robert Clarke, PhD, DSc is an internationally recognized leader in breast cancer research. Dr. Clarke is the Dean for Research and Professor of Oncology at Georgetown University Medical Center. His research interests include understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms driving antiestrogen resistance and hormone independence in breast cancer.
He also is interested in drug resistance (cytotoxic, endocrine), drug/hormone interactions, and the application of molecular profiling (e.g., transcriptome, proteome, tissue array analyses) to predict breast cancer phenotypes and identify functionally relevant gene signaling networks. As an expert in cancer systems biology, Dr. Clarke leads several multinational molecular medicine studies in breast cancer, in collaboration with colleagues at the Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Virginia Tech, and the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. He has served as chair of peer-review study sections for NIH and the Department of Defense, and currently serves on the editorial boards of over a dozen international peer review journals. Dr. Clarke is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry, a Fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine, and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Biology in the U.K.
Ellis, M., Davis, N., Coop, A., Liu, M., Lee, R.Y., Russell, C., Singh, B., Miller, W.R., Stearns, V., Pennanen, M., Tsangaris, T., Liu, A., Zwart, A., Hayes, D.F., Lippman, M.E., Wang, Y. & Clarke, R. “Development and validation of a method using breast core needle biopsies for gene expression microarray analyses.” Clin Cancer Res, 8 (2002): 1155-1166.
Welch, J.N. & Clarke, R.. “ErbB-2 expression and drug resistance in cancer.” Signal, 4 (2002): 9-Apr.
Clarke, R. “Meeting report: 10th Annual American Institute for Cancer Research Conference – The Role of Nutrition in Preventing and treating Breast and Prostate Cancer.” CD Current Drugs: ID Weekly Highlights, (2000): 21-24.
Gopalakrishna, R., Gundimeda, U., Fontana, J.A. & Clarke, R.. “Differential distribution and nuclear association of protein phosphatase 2A in human breast carcinoma cell lines and its relation to estrogen receptor status and tumor progression.” Cancer Letters, 136 (1999): 119-128.
Lavigne, M.C., Ramwell, P.W. & Clarke, R.. “Growth regulation and ultrastructural characterization of porcine coronary artery smooth muscle cells.” In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology, 35 (1999): 136-143.
Jørgensen, L., Brünner, N., Spang-Thomsen, M., Clarke, R., Dombernowsky, P. & Svenstrup, B.. “A comparative study of steroid metabolism in the hormone dependent MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cell line and its two hormone resistant subpopulations MCF7/LCC1 and MCF7/LCC2.” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 63 (1997): 275-281.
Bei, M., Lavigne, M.C., Foegh, M.L., Ramwell, P. & Clarke, R.. “Specific binding of oestradiol to rat coronary artery heart smooth muscle cells.” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 58 (1996): 83-88.
Brünner, N., Johnson, M.D., Holst-Hansen, J.F., Kiilgaard, J.F., Thompson, E.W. & Clarke, R.. “Acquisition of estrogen independence and antiestrogen resistance in breast cancer: association with the invasive and metastatic phenotype.” Endocrine Related Cancer, 2 (1995): 27-36.
Clarke, R. & Dickson, R.B.. “The interactions among steroid hormones, steroid hormone receptors, antiestrogens, biological response modifiers and cytotoxic drugs in human breast cancer.” Bristol-Myers Squibb Cancer Symposium, 13 (1991): 223-253.
Clarke, R., Lippman, M.E. & Dickson, R.B.. “Mechanism of hormone and cytotoxic drug interactions in the development and treatment of breast cancer.” Progress in Clinical and Biological Research, 322 (1990): 243- 278.
Brünner, N., Zugmaier, G., Bano, M., Ennis, B.W., Clarke, R., Cullen, K.J., Kern, F.G., Dickson, R.B. & Lippman, M.E.. “Role of secreted polypeptides in growth regulation of breast cancer.” Cancer Cells, 1 (1989): 81-86.
Dickson, R.B., Bates, S.E., Valverius, E., Knabbe, C., Salomon., D., Huff, K.K., Bronzert, D., Walker-Jones, D., Freter, C., Favoni, R., Yee, D., Zugmaier, G., Ennis, B., Clarke, R., Kern, F., Rosen, N. & Lippman M.E. “Estrogen and antiestrogen regulation of mitogenic growth factors in human breast cancer cells.” Program of Cancer Research Therapy, 35 (1988): 217-222.
Nelson, J., Clarke, R., McFerran, N.V. & Murphy, R.F.. “Morphofunctional effects of phenol red on oestrogen sensitive human breast cancer cells.” Biochemical Society Transactions, 15(1987): 244-245.
Clarke, R., van den Berg, H.W., Nelson, J. & Murphy, R.F.. “Pharmacological and suprapharmacological concentrations of both 17?-estradiol and tamoxifen reduce the membrane fluidity of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-436 human breast cancer cells.” Biochemical Society Transactions, 15 (1987): 243-244.
Clarke, R., van den Berg, H.W. & Murphy, R.F.. “The ability of oestrogen to modulate the effects of cytotoxic drugs in human breast cancer cells; influence of oestrogen receptor (ER) status and choice of drug.” Biochemical Society Transactions, 15 (1987): 242-243.
Kennedy, D.G., van den Berg, H.W., Clarke, R. & Murphy, R.F.. “Enhancement of the sensitivity of MDA-MB-436 human breast cancer cell line to methotrexate by dipyridamole..”Biochemical Pharmacology (1986): 3053-3056.
Nelson, J., Clarke, R., Dickson, G.R., van den Berg, H.W. & Murphy, R.F.. “The effects of Mg++ or EDTA on the subcellular distribution of unoccupied estrogen receptor in ZR-75-1 and MCF- 7 cells.” Biochem Soc Trans, 14 (1986): 447.
Clarke, R., Crook, E. & Federoff, H.J. “Chapter 14: The changing spectrum of biomedical and clinical research.” The Transformation of Academic Health Centers, edited by Wartman, S.A., 137-148. Academic Press,, 2015.
Schwartz-Roberts, J.L. & Clarke, R. “Blockage of liposomal degradation is detrimental to cancer cells: role of autophagy activation.” Autophagy, Vol 2, edited by Hayat, M.A., Elsevier Inc., 2013.
Zhang, B., Li, H., Clarke, R. & Wang, Y. “Differential dependency network analysis to identify topological rewiring in biological networks.” Medical Biostatistics for Complex Diseases, edited by Emmert-Streib, F. & Dehmer, M., 185-203. Berlin: Wiley-VCH, 2010.
Deb, T.B., Ramlijak, D., Dickson, R.B., Johnson, M.D. & Clarke, R. “Signaling pathways in the normal and neoplastic breast..” Handbook of Cell Signaling, edited by Thompson, B.E., New York, NY: Elsevier, Inc., 2009.
Shajahan, A.N., Riggins, R.B. & Clarke, R. “Apoptosis, cell death and breast cancer.” Breast cancer: prognosis, treatment, and prevention, edited by Pasqualini, J.R., 137-156. New York, NY: Informa Healthcare, 2008.
Clarke, R. “Human breast cancer xenografts as models of the human disease.” Tumor Models in Cancer Research, edited by Teicher, B.A., 453-470. Humana Press, Inc., 2002.
Clarke, R. & Johnson, M.D. “Chapter 22: Animal models.” Diseases of the Breast 2nd Edition, edited by Harris, J.R., Lippman, M.E., Morrow, M., Hellman, S., 319-333. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 2000.
R. Clarke, F. Leonessa, N. Brunner, & E.W. Thompson. “Chapter 23: Invitro models.” Diseases of the Breast 2nd edition, edited by J.R. Harris, M.E. Lippman, M. Morrow, S. Hellman, 335-354. Philadelphia, PA: J.B. Lippincott Co., 2000.
Clarke, R. & Dickson, R.B. “Animal models of tumor onset, growth and metastasis.” Encyclopedia of Cancer: Volume I, edited by Bertino, J.R., 21-Oct. San Diego: Academic Press, 1997.
Clarke, R.. “Animal models of breast cancer.” Diseases of the Breast, edited by Harris, J.R., Lippman, M.E., Morrow, M., Hellman, S., 235- 244. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1996.
Clarke, R., Leonessa F., Brünner, N. & Thompson, E.W.. “In vitro models of breast cancer.” Diseases of the Breast, edited by Harris, J.R., Lippman, M.E., Morrow, M., Hellman, S., 245-261. J. B. Lippincott Co., 1996.
Dickson, R.B. & Clarke, R. “Breast Cancer: new biological approaches to treatment.” Molecular Endocrinology of Cancer, edited by Waxman, J., 271-303. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press,, 1995.
Clarke, R. and Leonessa, F. “Cytotoxic drugs and hormones in breast cancer: interactions at the cellular level.” Drug and Hormonal Resistance in Breast Cancer, edited by Lippman, M.E. and Dickson, R.B., 407-432. New York: Ellis Horwood, Inc., 1994.
Clarke, R. & Lippman, M.E. “The acquisition of antiestrogen resistance in breast cancer.” Drug Resistance in Oncology, edited by Teicher, B.A., 501-536. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1993.
Farhat, M., Abi-Younes, S., Vargas, R., Wolfe, R.M., Clarke, R., & Ramwell, P.W. “Vascular non-genomic effects of estrogen.” Sex Steroids and the Cardiovascular System, edited by Ramwell, P.W., Rubanyi, G. & Schillinger, 145-159. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1992.
Clarke, R., Dickson, R.B. & Lippman, M.E. “The role of steroid hormones and growth factors in the control of normal and malignant breast.” Structure and Function of Nuclear Hormone Receptors, edited by Parker, M.G., 297-319. Academic Press Ltd., 1991.
Brünner, N., Clarke, R., Lippman, M.E. & Dickson, R.B. “Models for studying the progression from hormone-dependence to independency in human breast cancer.” Growth Regulation of Cancer II, edited by Lippman, M.E. & Dickson, R.B. Publisher: Alan R., 115-126. Alan R. Liss Inc, 1990.
Brünner, N., Poulsen, H.S., Clarke, R. & Spang-Thomsen. M. “Effect of oophorectomy (Ovax) on estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PGR) concentration in an ovarian dependent and an ovarian independent ER and PGR positive human breast cancer grown in nude mice.” Immune-Deficient Animals in Experimental Medicine, edited by Wu, B. & Zheng, J., 196-201. Karger pp, 1989.
Clarke, R., Lippman, M., Dickson, R.B. & Brünner, N. “In vivo\in vitro selection of hormone independent cells from the hormone dependent MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line.”Immune-Deficient Animals in Experimental Medicine, edited by Wu, B. & Zheng, J., 190-195. Karger pp, 1989.